Punjab Colony Manual Of The Jhelum Colony

Which was settled between 1902 and 1906. The colony was situated in the Shahpur district and had its headquarters in the newly founded town of Sargodha. Initially the colony was intended to serve the same aims as the other colonies of fostering agrarian excellence and relieving population strains. However, the Report of the Horse and Mule breeding Commission of 1900-01 recommended the colonists be allowed to breed animals for the army. The government of India subsequently instructed the Punjab government to impose these conditions on the new colony. Instead of selecting skilled agriculturists, the government were to now seek out skilled horse-breeders. Under the new scheme, the horse-breeding tenure was imposed on all peasant grants. The size of peasant landholdings was increased, which resulted in absentee landlords and a large sub-tenant workforce.

Yeoman grantees, which had initially been ear-marked to be scrapped, were required to possess 5-15 mares each. The majority of peasant grantees hailed from the districts of Gujrat, Sialkot and Gujranwala. Yeoman grantees were selected from families of local landed magnates, further bringing the allegiance of the rural gentry towards British rule. These Yeoman grantees would however prove to be unsatisfactory colonists, absentee landlords, and were unable to transfer their equine skills to the colony.