by Thorburn,s.s Perhaps Punjab has seen more wars during its existence than in other parts of India. Frequent aggression shapes people's culture and character. You have learned the art of survival and progress despite these calamities. This volume covers the entire 19th century, during which the Punjab people experienced a peaceful and short calm during the battle and the change of ruler. The author recorded the establishment and dismantling of a sovereign Sikh Raj and the passage of weapons between the Sikh army and the British Empire. It offers us a glimpse into the martial spirit of human beings of Sikhs in addition to the unreal polity in their management following the dying of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It additionally highlights and stick and carrot coverage of the British rulers and their a hit prevailing of the hearts of human beings of Punjab via the particularly benevolent management of John Lawrence quickly after the British subjugation of Punjab. The description is characterised with the aid of using chronological info without being judgmental.